Category Archives: Publication
The book Boundaries of Self and Reality Online: Implications of Digitally Constructed Realities edited by Jayne Gackenbach & Johnathan Bown, includes a chapter by me and Mark D. Griffiths. “Beyond the Boundaries of the Game: The Interplay Between In-Game Phenomena, Structural Characteristics of Video Games, and Game Transfer Phenomena”.
This chapter is a first attempt to map in-game phenomena and structural characteristics of video games, with transfers of game experiences manifesting in a number of modalities: altered perceptions, automatic mental processes, and behaviours with the purpose of stimulating future empirical work for hypothesis testing. This chapter also examines which phenomena, inherent to the video game world and elements in the gameplay, appear to contribute to the transfer of game experiences.
We have identified four core factors relevant for GTP to occur: (1) sensory perceptual stimulation, (2) high cognitive load, (3) dissociative states, and (4) high emotional engagement.
I want to thank my dear colleague Jayne Gackenbach for the invitation to collaborate in this book. It is a particular pleasure for me to appear in a book together with John Suler, one of my favourite scholars when I started investigating the psychosocial effects of Internet and addiction in 1998 for my undergraduate thesis for becoming a psychologist.
John Suler’s initiative with his website on the psychology of the Cyberspace together with Sherry Turkle and her book “The life on the screen”, Kimberly Young with her centre Net Addiction and her book “Caught in the Net”, and Mark D. Griffiths’ research were crucial for me choosing Cyberpsychology as my main area of research.
I remember my times in “the Palace” (a visual, spatial and auditory chat environment that was quite advance for 1995) where Suler conducted his social research on the psychology of the cyberspace.
Wow! This really brings back memories about the ambience in there. I can almost remember the sounds!
A new study on the severity of GTP “An empirical examination of factors associated with Game Transfer Phenomena severity” has been published in the Computer in Human Behaviour Journal with my co-authors Ben Oldfield and Mark D. Griffiths. You can download a free copy of the full article until September following this link.
Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP) (i.e. altered perceptions, spontaneous thoughts and behaviors with game content) occur on a continuum from mild to severe. This study examined the differences between mild, moderate and severe levels of GTP.
A total of 2281 gamers’ participated in an online survey. The majority of gamers experienced a mild level of GTP.
The factors significantly associated with the severe level of GTP were:
(i) being students, (ii) being aged 18 to 22 years, (iii) being professional gamers, (iv) playing videogames every day in sessions of 6 h or more, (iv) playing to escape from the real world, (v) having a sleep disorder, mental disorder or reported dysfunctional gaming, and (vi) having experienced distress or dysfunction due to GTP.
In addition, having used drugs and experiencing flashbacks as side- effects of drug use were significantly less likely to be reported by those with mild level of GTP.
In a regression analysis, predictors of severe GTP included positive appraisals of GTP, distress or dysfunction due to GTP, and tendency to recall dreams. In general, the findings suggest that those with severe level of GTP share characteristics with profiles of gamers with dysfunctional gaming (e.g., problematic and/or addictive gaming).
After months of collecting and analysing a large number of gamers’ experiences, the first in a series of studies for identifying, classifying and explaining GTP has finally been published.
“Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical Self-Report Study” focus particularly on visual experiences but also on body sensations related with visual video game effects.
Gamers perceived objects and environments distorted, real life objects were confused with video game elements, and images from the video games were seen in real life context.
In my previous post “Video games’ visual effects leaking into our reality” I wrote a short summary about the findings.
The article is published in the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. You can download a free copy until the end of March.
The aim of this study was to identify, classify, and explain gamers’ perceptual experiences referred to as Visual Game Transfer Phenomena (VGTP) to contribute to the understanding of the effects of post-video-game playing and encourage healthy and safe gaming. A total of 656 experiences from 483 gamers were collected from 54 online gaming forums. The findings suggest that intensive playing can result in misperceptions and visual distortions of real-life objects and environments, stereotypical visual experiences that arise from mind visualization, and pseudo-hallucinatory experiences with video game content. Gamers’ experiences can be explained by the interplay of physiological, perceptual, and cognitive mechanisms. Observation of video game features suggests that in most cases a relationship between the games’ structural characteristics, gamers’ VGTP experiences, and gamers’ playing habits appeared relevant. VGTP can occur while gaming, immediately after stopping play, or after some delay. Further VGTP characteristics and their psychosocial implications are discussed.