Author Archives: Angelica B. Ortiz de Gortari
Washington Post is running a series of stories on growing up in “The screen age”. In the most recent story “The next level” they go into the case of “Byrne”, his struggles with gaming addition and the impact on his family. Byrne has also experienced Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP).
“After Byrne’s prolonged periods of play, his parents noticed that his temperament was unusually volatile. The muscles in his back and neck felt tense and tight. His eyes would sometimes twitch. Lines of dialogue from the games would pop into his mind unbidden. At school, the class dismissal bell occasionally sounded just like the two-tone chime that signaled a new friend joining a game online — a sort of auditory hallucination that researchers refer to as Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP), in which the boundaries between reality and the game begin to blur.
Nicholas Kardaras, a New York psychotherapist and author who specializes in addiction, still remembers the very first gamer he treated who suffered from GTP: a teenage boy in a Metallica T-shirt who appeared frightened and confused as he sat in Kardaras’s office…”
I’m a bit unsure if Byrne was hearing, seeing or thinking about the dialogues from the game. I have found all these manifestations in my research on GTP.
Hearing voices from the game inside the head, as a sort of inner speech because of internalizing auditory images of speech without pronouncing a sound has been reported with video games that have repetitive dialogues and commands. “Go, Go”, “Welcome back”, “over time, over time”. Probably dialogues from online conversations can also manifest in similar ways.
Gamers have also repeatedly heard music or sound in the head as involuntary auditory imagery, very similar as when a melody that you like (or hate) gets stuck in your head! Additionally, gamers have heard sounds coming from objects associated with the game, as a more genuine form of “auditory hallucination”.
In terms of visual experiences, spontaneous visualizations of images from the game are one of the most common GTP experiences. Gamers have even seen menus that pop up in the corner of their eyes and menus or tags above people’s head.
At times Byrne thought that the dismissal bell at school sounded like a signal from the game. Misinterpretations of real life stimuli (e.g. objects, sounds) that resemble something from the game has been broadly reported. Gamers have interpreted birds as fighting jets, or interpreted doors being shut as spiders crawling.
The links between GTP and gaming addiction has not been clearly established yet, but in one of our latest studies 7% of those that have experienced GTP very frequently and in various forms were significantly more likely to consider having problematic gaming or gaming addiction. They played sessions of 6 hours or longer and 58% of those have experienced distress or/and dysfunction due to GTP.
Read the full story about Byrne here.
Quel effet psychologique des jeux vidéo et de la réalité virtuelle?
“Quand je jouais beaucoup à World of Warcraft… je commençais à voir des barres de vie au-dessus de la tête des gens” Charlie, 17
Collaborez sur un projet de post-doctorat visant à mieux comprendre le « Game Transfer Phenomena » (GTP) ! Le GTP est une manifestation similaire aux hallucinations, pensées spontanées et comportements involontaires qui surviennent après avoir joué à des jeux vidéo.
Une approche novatrice en recherche, qui peut inclure l’utilisation de casques réalité virtuelle !
But: Comprendre les mécanismes cognitifs et perceptuels sous-jacent au GTP
- Deux seules places disponibles !
Si vous souhaitez participer à ce projet : Dr. Angelica Ortiz de Gortari firstname.lastname@example.org
Moving from UK… I will miss many things from Nottingham, the city of Robin Hood! A colourful multicultural, breathing and living city! A city that I witnessed getting developed during the last couple of years.
I’m happy and proud when I look back at my time in Nottingham. During the last six years I gave the best of me and put Nottingham Trent University on the headlines all around the world with my research on Game Transfer Phenomena conducted as my PhD.
Seeing the possibilities rather than the limitations… My partner Anders made me realise this is how I navigate through life, during our final dinner in Nottingham… I’m grateful for the opportunities to grow professionally and mature personally.
During the last years my life has revolved around the work I highlight below, mostly done as part of my doctoral research next to my PhD supervisor Professor Mark Griffiths at Nottingham Trent University.
I hope to visit my friends and colleagues in Nottingham at some point in the future… For now, it is time to move on and keep building the dreams on a new path.
University of Liège in Belgium here I come!
I´m looking forward to start a new phase in my research into GTP with my Marie Curie COFUND postdoc fellowship, co-funded by the University of Liège and the European Union.
Main published articles:
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B. (2016). The Game Transfer Phenomena framework: Investigating altered perceptions, automatic mental processes and behaviors induced by virtual immersion. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine. Cypsy21. In press.
Ortiz de Gortari A. B., Oldfield B & Griffiths M. D (2016). An empirical examination of factors associated with Game Transfer Phenomena severity. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 274-284
Ortiz de Gortari A. B., & Griffiths M. D. (2016). Prevalence and Characteristics of Game Transfer Phenomena: A Descriptive Survey Study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(6), 470-480.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B (2015). What can Game Transfer Phenomena tell us about the impact of highly immersive gaming technologies? Proceedings of the Interactive Technologies and Games 2015 Conference Proceedings in IEEE xplore.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Pontes, H. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale: An instrument for investigating the non-volitional effects of video game playing.Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Game Transfer Phenomena and its associated factors: An exploratory empirical online survey study. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 195-202.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B & Griffiths, M. D (2015). Living the game. IGI Global editorial monthly news. http://www.igi-global.com/newsroom/archive/living-game/2223
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Auditory experiences in Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical self-report study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning 4(1), 59-75.
Ortiz de Gortari, A., & Griffiths, M. (2014). Automatic Mental Processes, Automatic Actions and Behaviours in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study Using Online Forum Data. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-21.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30(2), 95-105.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). An Introduction to Game Transfer Phenomena in Video Game Playing. In J. I. Gackenbach (Ed.), Video Game Play and Consciousness. NY: Nova Publisher.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). The Relevance of Game Transfer Phenomena When Addressing Problematic Gaming. Paper presented at the 17th annual CyberPsychology & CyberTherapy Conference, Brussels, Belgium.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Aronsson, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Game Transfer Phenomena in video game playing: A qualitative interview study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 1(3), 15-33.
Is technology haunting us? Or we are haunting it? Aleks Krotoski wonders.
Traditional definitions of what is alive seem limited! Toys dance, cry, smile; advanced technologies are “smart”, and trick us making us feel they are present and even alive. Traces from virtual immersion appear and people see and hear things that are not actually there.
Join my conversation with Joe Brown, Science’s Editor in Chief and Executive Editor of Wired, Leigh Haggerwood, expert on horror sound design, Tobias Revell, artist and designer who explores failed utopias and unexplained phenomena and professor Jeffrey Sconce, media and film cultural historian. -With the bonus of the participation of gamers telling us about their Game Transfer Phenomena experiences.
We try to unveil the mysteries of how technology make inanimate things come alive and how sometimes our relation with technology trigger our deepest fears and anxieties, in BBC Radio 4’s Digital Human episode: “Haunted” with a spooky tone for Halloween!
Follow this link to listening the broadcast.
Looking for Pokémon Go players for a new study!
Please help us by answering this survey focusing on Pokémon Go & Game Transfer Phenomena.
The aim is to investigate the impact of the Augmented Reality game
Pokémon GO on gamers´ well-being and Game Transfer Phenomena.
You should be at least 18 years old to participate in the study.
Participate in the Survey in English
Participa en el cuestionario en Español
Please share the link to the survey with your contacts.
Read more: Blogs related to Pokémon.
A couple of weeks ago, I gave a talk at the DEVHR6 -Foro International del Juego.
I really appreciated this invitation, since I consider it indispensable to build communication bridges between the different spheres involved in video games and learn from our different perspectives.
Here you can watch my talk I specially prepared for the video game developers at the conference.Video courtesy of Cyad Tv of the division Design Sciences and Arts in the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UNAM) in Mexico City.
Further down you can also find the presentation itself and the videos I showed at the conference.
My talk at DEVHR6
Main videos used in my presentation with sub-titles in Spanish
Parody on GTP courtesy Ginx TV
Gamers’ thoughts and their GTP experiences
GTP in CSI: Cyber (Spanish)
GTP in CSI: Cyber (English)
I just found out about the article “Game Transfer Phenomena: The original AR” by Sophie Turner. It was published in the magazine Unwinnable that covers video game culture, art and more. This edition is on The Body Horror. It is a magazine I will follow! Thanks for this Sophie!
I like that title! “Game Transfer Phenomena: The original AR“. It resonates with thoughts from an old post of mine:
“There are still no holograms or touch interfaces that float in front our eyes, and the Google glasses are just a small step on the way. No artificial technology is needed, only the most powerful machinery never invented, the human mind! Suddenly the real scenery of some gamers appeared tinted by colours and textures, shadows, auras around objects, menus, power bars, and pixelations.”
Here is an extract from the article in Unwinnable about GTP:
“Ever been living your mundane, day-to-day life and reached for your nonexistent
Portal gun after noticing a blank white wall or had to fight the
urge to pick through some particularly useful looking foliage for a Stimpak?
Perhaps you’ve curled up in bed after a long Tetris session and continued
seeing the game behind your eyes, or have reached for the save button in a
perilous situation before being hit by the crushing reality of living in the real
world? If so, you’ve experienced Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP), and you’re
definitely not alone.
GTP is a term coined by psychologist and self-confessed gamer Angelica
B. Ortiz de Gortari, who began studying the phenomena after her own
experiences with them.”
Continue reading on page 106 in the magazine.
Entusiasmada en apoyar el talento mexicano y compartir mi investigación del Game Transfer Phenomenon en el DEVHR6 el Foro International de Juego con mis anfitriones mexicanos!
Este es uno de los eventos más importantes de los desarrolladores de video juegos en México. Talleres, conferencias y mas.
Del 22 al 25 de Septiembre. Centro de Cultura Digital
Cuidad de Mexico.
Para mas información vean este video cortesía de Indie Bonus Stage
Seminar on Game Transfer Phenomena, this time at my alma mater UDEM (University of Monterrey).
“Game Transfer Phenomena: Cuando los video juegos brincan a tu realidad con alucinaciones, pensamientos y comportamientos involuntarios”
According to our previous study on Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP) (i.e., altered sensorial perceptions, automatic mental processes and involuntary behaviours with game content) we found that most gamers have experienced GTP.
97% of our self-selected sample reported that they had experienced GTP at some point of their life.
The more common GTP reported were: i) visualized or seen video game images with closed eyes, ii) heard music from the game when not playing, iii) wanted to use video game elements in real life contexts and iv) involuntarily said something with contents from the game.
It was unexpected to find such a high prevalence of GTP. Certainly, the findings raised numerous questions.
How could it be that we found such a large prevalence in a non-self-selected sample?, what would be the prevalence if GTP is framed in a particular time period rather than during gamers whole life?, what would be the prevalence in a pathological sample or with actual drug users?
In our sample the majority of the participants did not suffer from any medical conditions, neither had most ever consumed drugs or were under the influence of a substance (medicament or drug) when they experienced GTP.
Most of the questions I mentioned above cannot be answered with our current data; however, we could answer what characterize those gamers who experienced a severe level of GTP.
Comparative analysis between the mild, moderate and severe levels of GTP showed interesting results (n=2281).
The majority of the participants showed mild level of GTP (57.8%), then moderate level (35.6%), and least had severe level (6.6%).
The factors significantly associated with the severe level of GTP were the following:
- being student
- being aged 18 to 22 years
- being a professional gamer
- playing video games every day in sessions of 6 hours or longer
- playing to escape from the real world
- having a sleep disorder, mental disorder or reported dysfunctional gaming
- having experienced distress or dysfunction due to GTP.
In addition, having used drugs and experienced flashbacks as side-effects of drug use were significantly less likely to be reported by those with mild level of GTP.
Moreover, in a regression analysis, predictors of severe GTP included:
- positive appraisals of GTP
- distress or dysfunction due to GTP
- tendency to recall dreams.
In general, the findings suggest that those with a severe level of GTP share characteristics with profiles of gamers with dysfunctional gaming (e.g., problematic and/or addictive gaming).
To get the full picture and the interpretation of the findings you are welcome to check our study published in the Computer in Human Behaviour.