Search Results for visual experience

Visual experiences

Study 1. Altered Visual Perceptions in Game Transfer Phenomena

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify, classify, and explain gamers’ perceptual experiences referred to as Visual Game Transfer Phenomena (VGTP) to contribute to the understanding of the effects of post-video-game playing and encourage healthy and safe gaming. A total of 656 experiences from 483 gamers were collected from 54 online gaming forums. The findings suggest that intensive playing can result in misperceptions and visual distortions of real-life objects and environments, stereotypical visual experiences that arise from mind visualization, and pseudo-hallucinatory experiences with video game content. Gamers’ experiences can be explained by the interplay of physiological, perceptual, and cognitive mechanisms. Observation of video game features suggests that in most cases a relationship between the games’ structural characteristics, gamers’ VGTP experiences, and gamers’ playing habits appeared relevant. VGTP can occur while gaming, immediately after stopping play, or after some delay. Further VGTP characteristics and their psychosocial implications are discussed.

Download full paper 

Check out the summary about the study in my post:

Video games’ visual effects leaking into our reality

Main categories:

Digitally Induced Images
In this category, video game images arose either in the mind, as retinal sensations, or as a projection of video game images
“out there” and multisensorial experiences and cross-sensorial experiences, and comprised (a) mind visualizations, (b) retinal sensations, (c) seeing video games elements projected in the real world, (d) multisensorial experiences, and (e) across sensorial experiences.

  • Mind visualizations. These were defined as visualizing video game elements in the mind, flashbacks or picturing video games elements in real life environments (e.g., ‘mind’, ‘head’ or ‘mind’s eye’). They were considered as daydreams if the gamers imagined themselves doing things as in the video game. These daydream experiences were excluded from the data analysis.
  • Retinal sensations. These were defined as seeing video game elements intermittently or episodically in the back of the eyelids. Indications of eye sensations were required in this category that differ from mind visualizations (e.g., ‘in the back of my eyelids’, ‘with closed eyes’).
  • Seeing video game elements projected. This was defined as seeing video game elements with open eyes or projected ‘out there’ (e.g., ‘corner of the eye’, ‘in front my eyes’, ‘with open eyes’, ‘see them everywhere’, ‘peripheral vision’, ‘projected’, ‘blinking’, and ‘hallucinations’). This manifested as: (i) seeing video game elements in front of the eyes floating, and as (ii) seeing video game elements as superimposed on real life objects and environments.
  • Multi-sensorial experiences. These manifested when visualizations were accompanied by sensations in other sensorial modalities (e.g., seeing video game elements while feeling body movements or hearing the music from the video game).
  • Across sensorial experiences. These manifested when gamers had seen with closed or  open eyes, or visualized in the mind, video game elements triggered by a stimulus in a different sensory modality (e.g., auditory). These experiences were considered as induced synaesthesia (e.g., seeing images while listening to music).

DII_GTP_B

Perceptual distortions: These were defined as distorted perceptions of real life environments, or objects directly associated with video game contents. This category also included gamers’ experiences of alteration of time perception due to visual effects of velocity.

Visual Misperceptions: These were defined as perceiving a real life object as something from a video game. This included experiences where gamers confused real life stimuli or had thought they saw a video game element, as well as, when they saw video game elements in ambiguous real life stimuli such as clouds or dots. It also included when gamers stated they saw everything in terms of blocks or had make analogies between real life stimuli and video game elements.

Unspecified VGTP: This category included experiences with clear altered visual perceptions but where the gamers’ posts did not include enough information to classify them in any or a new category.

percents VGTP

 

 

Advertisements

Some of the more commonly reported visual experiences

A large variety of video game elements and types of altered visual perceptions have been reported by gamers. Here are some of the more commonly reported visual experiences (1, 2)

A total of 181 different video game titles were associated with GTP in the visual modality, ranging from tile-matching puzzle games to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (2).

Perceiving RL environments distorted immediately after stopping playing.

Motion after-effects like. If you look at this spiral for short time you can experience a similar effect.

Visual2_Guitar Hero

Seeing video game images while trying to fall asleep.

The recurrent after-images were seen as either static or in movement. The images were seen while trying to falling asleep or every time they blinked or closed their eyes.

V2_RecurrentAfterimages

Visualizing or seeing video games elements when wanted to used it in RL

AT2_portal

Seeing or visualizing video game images with open eyes

Some gamers’ visual experiences were triggered by automatic associations.

Visual1 Tetris

Some gamers have seen video game images superimposed on real life objects or just in front/corner of their eyes. Sometimes these experiences were triggered by similarities between real life stimuli and video game elements, and in other cases the images were triggered by associations between activities. We speculated that altered state of consciousness, fostered by the gamers’ relatively passive and automatic activities, facilitated the GTP (2). Anxiety and stress has been related to these experiences (1).

V7_health bars

Visual Misinterpretations

Misinterpretations of real life objects that share similarities and are presented in similar context as in the game.

Visual3 UAV

percents VGTP

In this video you can see some of the video game elements that have been related with the gamers’ experiences.

If you want to know more you can read the study Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study.

(1) Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Aronsson, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Game Transfer Phenomena in Video Game Playing: A Qualitative Interview Study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning (IJCBPL), 1(3), 15-33.

(2) Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30(2), 95-105.

GTP adventures compilation video #1: Visual experiences

Check out this video I created with a collection of the cartoons about visual GTP experiences. I hope you will enjoy it, if not I am waiting for the tomatoes. 🙂

GTP Adventures – Discussing visual experiences

In this comic, I have tried to portray two ways to interpret GTP.

Which one do you think is the best? Maybe this is not your case but which situation do you think can help a gamer who is worried about his/her GTP experiences?

Scenario 1

Discussing_GTP_2_1

Discussing_GTP_2_2

Scenario 2

Discussing_GTP_1_1

Discussing_GTP_1_2

Discussing_GTP_1_3

Discussing_GTP_1_4

Click here to visit the collection of GTP adventures.

Controlling spontaneous visuals from video games

VG_GHfrets1

Gamers have reported a variety of visual Game Transfer Phenomena experiences. These include perceptual distortions of objects or environments, mind visualizations and pseudo-hallucinations where gamers have seen images from the game floating in the back of their eyelids or in front of their eyes.

Interestingly, while many gamers have simply seen the video game images either static or in movement, others claim they have even replayed full game sessions in their mind.

Also, some gamers said they could induce perceptual distortions based on elements from the game.

Being able to control visual sensory information that arise spontaneously, usually without our awareness more than deliberately imagining or visualizing video game segments is very challenging.

According to research, hypnagogic visual hallucinations (when images are seen at sleep onset) disappear when the individual tries to control the images. However, can visuospatial skills (e.g. mental rotation) and visual memory typically attributed to frequently playing video games contribute to exercise some control over the images?

I wonder to what degree gamers can actually control their visual experiences?

The control can include prolonging the duration of visuals, moving the images, replaying the game, and inducing the images.

It is important to make clear that there is a difference between imagining the video game images than experiencing the sensation of seeing coloured afterimages and shapes in the back of the eyelids.

If you look at a bright lamp for a short period, you will get an afterimage. You can also easily see a negative afterimage (with opposite colour) by looking at the cross in the centre of the image below.

afterimage_1_

Further readings

Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). Altered visual perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical self-report study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30(2), 95-105.
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Aronsson, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Game Transfer Phenomena in video game playing: A qualitative interview study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning 1(3), 15-33.

The South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare‘s campaign based on Game Transfer Phenomena experiences

The Ministry of Health and Welfare in South Korea has launched a public service announcement warning about gaming addiction. The video portrays a variety of gamers’ experiences, similar as those we have reported in different studies on  Game Transfer Phenomena as part of my PhD thesis with over 3,500 gamers, manifesting in different sensory modalities, mental processes and behaviours.

The video shows a variety of scenes, where the viewers are asked to tick a box for each of the following experiences: hearing sounds from the video game when not playing, seeing video game characters triggered by seeing something in real life contexts, movements of fingers, and attacking someone when confusing her with a video game character. This last scene was in the first version of the Ad but later was removed due to negative response from the public (9).

Hearing sounds when not playing – In the studies on GTP, gamers have reported hearing music, sound effects and voices from the game in their head, coming from nowhere or from physical objects associated with the game when not playing (2).

1

Perceiving things as in the video games –  gamers have reported visual misperceptions or confusions of physical objects or persons (4), as well as automatic associations between persons and video games characters (3). Moreover, gamers have reported seeing images from games that go from seeing recurrent images in the back of the eyelids to seeing health bars above peoples’ heads or menus in front of their eyes (3, 5). 2 2.1

Movements of limbs – Repetitive movements of fingers (which I refer to as Tech-induced dyskinesia) have been reported as “instinctive”, “automatic” or initiated in a “playful way”. Moreover, involuntary movements of arms or fingers have occurred when thoughts or images of the game suddenly arose after playing; sometimes in response to real life stimuli associated with the game or when falling asleep (2).

3

Behaviours – In the studies on GTP  behaviours have mostly occurred as automatic actions such as approaching objects with the intention to do something as in the game and then realizing they are not in the game; verbal outburst is another example. However, there are a few extreme cases that have ended up in risky situations (3).

4

4.1

The GTP studies suggest that the duration of the visuals, sounds or thoughts mainly tend to be very short (seconds or minutes) but can occur recurrently (1).

In 2013, for the first time, the American Psychiatric Association’s updated version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM-5) included “Internet Gaming Disorder” in the section of “conditions that require further study” (8). Even though researchers have made significant progress in understanding about internet/gaming addiction for more than a decade, we still do not have a recognized golden standard criteria for the diagnosis. Although, gaming addiction is a fact and has negative consequences for a small number of the population of gamers. In terms of GTP experiences, they have usually been reported in association with intensive and excessive video game playing but this is not always the case. In a survey as part of my PhD thesis, all of those who reported having problematic gaming or gaming addiction have experienced GTP (1). Also, in another study based on interviews some gamers who reported GTP had neglected other parts of their lives due to playing games (7), however, in most cases, GTP doesn’t have negative consequences (1).

A disorder such as behavioural addiction requires that a group of diagnostic criteria (symptoms) are fulfilled for a certain period of time, including a detriment in some areas of the life of the individual.

I argue that GTP are on the continuum between normal and pathological phenomena, and they are not necessarily an indication of addiction, however, in some cases “GTP could be manifesting as symptoms of gaming addiction (i.e., preoccupation for gaming, an anticipation of expected outcomes and withdrawal symptoms).” GTP seem to be the result of hyperstimulation and the interplay of physiological, perceptual and cognitive mechanism (1).

Can the recurrence, prevalence and negative consequences of experiencing altered perceptions and/or intrusive thoughts and/or automatic behaviours related to interactive virtual technologies become a syndrome, or should we just consider GTP as normal temporary and residual alterations in susceptible individuals?

Could GTP help us to solve the puzzle of gaming addiction? The beauty of GTP is that they can easily be identified, quantified and corroborated based on video game contents and gamers’ experiences in the game and after playing. Although, not all gamers are susceptible to experience GTP and how they manifest seems to depend on the structural characteristics of the games (1). I strongly believe that investigating GTP can broaden our understanding of the side-effects of video game playing, but also our understanding of normal non-volitional phenomena that we experience daily. To date, we have little understanding about cognitions, perceptions and behaviours post-play. This is one of the reasons why the goal of my PhD was to identify and explain non-volitional phenomena (altered perceptions, automatic thoughts, and automatic actions) that manifest in a large variety of ways.

Gaming/Internet addiction is considered a very serious public health issue in some Asian countries and a large number of studies have been conducted in this area (10). In South Korea laws have been introduced to try to reduce the problem. For example children 16 and younger are banned from playing online video games between midnight and early hours (11).

I don’t know what evidence the Ministry of Health and Welfare in South Korea has to link GTP as symptoms of gaming addiction but I would like to find out. Scientific evidence is compulsory.

I will present a paper at the “IV International Congress of Dual Disorders: Addictions and other Mental Disorders” where I will discuss  GTP in terms of gaming addiction, in case you want to know more. If you want a copy of the GTP papers just drop me an e-mail. You are welcome to visit my weekly cartoon collection “GTP adventures” which are part of my efforts to inform about and demystify these phenomena.

U P D A T E

A recent study showed that those that experienced severe GTP (i.e., various forms of GTP and very frequently) are significantly more likely to have problems with gaming/addiction, play for longer than 6 hours per session and experience distress or dysfunction due to their GTP experiences.

Read the blog about the study.

Reference: Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Oldfield, B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). An empirical examination of factors associated with Game Transfer Phenomena severity. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 274-284.
maybe put “Reference:” as bold

News related: Comercial hace conciencia sobre adicción a los juegos en Corea

References

  1. Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., (2014).Exploring Game Transfer Phenomena: A multimodal research approach for investigating video games’ effects (doctoral dissertation). Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
  2. Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Auditory Experiences in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning (IJCBPL), 4(1), 59-75.
  3. Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., & Griffiths, M.D. (2014). Automatic Mental Processes, Automatic Actions and Behaviours in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study Using Online Forum Data. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4(12), 1-21.
  4. Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., & Griffiths, M.D. (2014). Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30(2), 95-105.
  5. Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., & Griffiths, D.  (2012). The relevance of Game Transfer Phenomena when addressing problematic gaming. Journal of Cyberpsychology and Rehabilitation, 5(2), 143.
  6. Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., Aronsson, K., & Griffiths, M.D. (2011). Game Transfer Phenomena in Video Game Playing: A Qualitative Interview Study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning 1(3), 15-33.
  7. Ortiz de Gortari, A. B. (2010). Targeting the Real life Impact of Virtual interactions: The Game Transfer Phenomenon 42 video games players’ experiences (Unpublished Master dissertation). Stockholm University, Stockholm.
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Washington DC.
  9. Ashcraft, B. (2015, Febraury, 4) South Korea’s Game Addiction Ads Are Terrible. Kotaku. Retrieved February 4, 2015 from http://kotaku.com/south-koreas-game-addiction-ads-are-terrible-1683683072#
  10. Kuss, D. J. (2013). Internet gaming addiction: Current perspectives. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 6, 125-137
  11. Associated Press in Seoul. (2013). South Korean MPs consider measures to tackle online gaming addiction. Retrieved 6 February, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/11/south-korea-online-gaming-addiction

Last chance to download the visual paper for free

This is the last month you can download the paper about altered visual experiences for free.

Download your copy here.

Press release about the study focusing on altered visual perceptions

Here you can read the press release we put out about the latest study.

“Study shows how video gamers experience altered visual perceptions after playing”

Some video gamers experience altered visual perceptions after playing, new research has shown. The study, published in the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, has been carried out by experts in Nottingham Trent University’s International Gaming Research Unit.

Led by psychologists Angelica Ortiz de Gortari and Professor Mark Griffiths, the research showed how some gamers reported distorted versions of real world surroundings. Others saw video game images and misinterpreted real life objects after they had stopped playing. Gamers reported seeing video game menus popping up in front their eyes when they were in a conversation, or saw coloured images and ‘heads up’ displays when driving on the motorway.

The study involved the analysis of 656 experiences from 483 gamers collected in 54 online video game forums.

This is the first of a series of studies that aims to identify, classify and explain ‘Game Transfer Phenomena’ (GTP) experiences via the different senses: sight, sound and touch. GTP research focuses on gamers’ perceptions, cognitions and behaviours influenced by video game playing and aims to further understanding of the psychosocial implications of altered perceptions induced by virtual technologies.

Read more

New study published: Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena

After months of collecting and analysing a large number of gamers’ experiences, the first in a series of studies for identifying, classifying and explaining GTP has finally been published.

“Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical Self-Report Study” focus particularly on visual experiences but also on body sensations related with visual video game effects.

Gamers perceived objects and environments distorted, real life objects were confused with video game elements, and images from the video games were seen in real life context.

In my previous post “Video games’ visual effects leaking into our reality” I wrote a short summary about the findings.

The article is published in the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. You can download a free copy until the end of March.

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to identify, classify, and explain gamers’ perceptual experiences referred to as Visual Game Transfer Phenomena (VGTP) to contribute to the understanding of the effects of post-video-game playing and encourage healthy and safe gaming. A total of 656 experiences from 483 gamers were collected from 54 online gaming forums. The findings suggest that intensive playing can result in misperceptions and visual distortions of real-life objects and environments, stereotypical visual experiences that arise from mind visualization, and pseudo-hallucinatory experiences with video game content. Gamers’ experiences can be explained by the interplay of physiological, perceptual, and cognitive mechanisms. Observation of video game features suggests that in most cases a relationship between the games’ structural characteristics, gamers’ VGTP experiences, and gamers’ playing habits appeared relevant. VGTP can occur while gaming, immediately after stopping play, or after some delay. Further VGTP characteristics and their psychosocial implications are discussed.

Video games’ visual effects leaking into our reality

There are still no holograms or touch interfaces that float in front our eyes, and the Google glasses are just a small step on the way.

No artificial technology is needed, only the most powerful machinery never invented, the human mind! Suddenly the real scenery of some gamers appeared tinted by colours and textures, shadows, auras around objects, menus, power bars and pixelations.

VD_ShapeAF

Video game images appeared passive and other times moving. Sometimes with closed eyes or with every blink of the eye, and suddenly in front of the eyes!

AF_closedeyes

Visual after-effects happen due to neural adaptations. Afterimages can easily be caused by simply looking at a bright light, but the most interesting findings in this study about GTP, is that perceptual distortions and images from the games were triggered by associations between the real world and previous video game experiences.

Images appear like pieces of a puzzle in real life scenarios, like projections of thoughts that reveal the complexity of the human mind, and the interplay of physiological, perceptual and cognitive mechanism.

AF_Openeyes_biketag

These altered perceptions can end in a good laugh, in creative and ludic experiences, or scary situations where some gamers have questioned their own mental health.

AF_openeyes_activities

Gamers have also experienced cross-sensorial experiences, synesthesia-like experiences induced artificially, when auditory stimuli such as music triggered seeing video game images, and multisensory experiences when images were seen while feeling involuntary movements of fingers or legs.

AF_triggered_music

Also,  gamers experienced misperceptions when for a moment they thought they saw something from the game. These experiences usually occurred when real life stimuli shared similarities with video game elements or were presented in similar contexts.

MISSI_planesbyUVA

In the first Game Transfer Phenomena study, an interview study with 42 Swedish frequent gamers, participants reported seeing health bars and text boxes above people’s heads (Ortiz de Gortari, Aronsson, & Griffiths, 2011). So, I decided to investigate these experiences closer as my PhD. This new study focus particularly on gamers’ experiences related to visual cues in video games, published in co-authorship with my PhD supervisor, Dr. Mark Griffiths, comprise the analysis of 656 experiences from 483 gamers that were collected from online video games forums.  Here are the results in numbers. A total of 181 different video game titles were related with gamers’ experiences.

percents VGTP

Updated based on a recent survey with over 2,000 gamers.

Gamers have reported similar experiences in the same games in both qualitative and quantitative studies of GTP.

77% have visualized or seeing images with closed eyes

46% have misperceived real life objects

36% have perceived environments distorted or objects

30% have seeing images with open eyes

gtp-prevalence-poster-online

You are very welcome to share your own experiences or questions. If you want to know more about GTP, or get a copy do not hesitate to contact me.

Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Aronsson, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Game Transfer Phenomena in video game playing: A qualitative interview study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 1(3), 15-33.

Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Altered visual perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical self-report study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction.

Ortiz de Gortari A. B., & Griffiths M. D. (2016). Prevalence and Characteristics of Game Transfer Phenomena: A Descriptive Survey Study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(6), 470-480.

Main news about the study: Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena

Game Spot Daily News

17 January 2014. The Boston Globe –When the game shuts off and the brain doesn’t

10 Janaury 2014. The independent –Better than real life: Gamers report video-game mechanics appearing in their vision 

8 January 2014. Telegraph – Gamers who play for hours ‘prone to hallucinations’

8 January 2014.Irish Metro– Gamers hallucinate and get flashbacks

Related blogs

Game Transfer Phenomena the original AR

Game Transfer Phenomena: Echoes of Extended Gameplay

Five most common type of GTP


Participate in a new survey!

GTPS-R_full

%d bloggers like this: